2021

  • Personality disorders are relatively common, especially in clinical settings. A number of evidence-based treatments are now available, especially for borderline personality disorder. However, little is known about the relevant training available to doctoral students in clinical and counseling psychology. in the current study, data were extracted from 336 clinical and counseling Ph. D. and Psy. D. programs from the Insider’s Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology>(Norcross & Sayette, 2020), including the number of programs with faculty with specific interests in personality disorders and the number of programs with clinical opportunities related to personality disorders. We found that formal training in personality disorders is not widely available to most trainees in APA-accredited doctoral training programs. Only 16% of programs have faculty with interests in personality disorders, all of them clinical psychology programs. Ph. D. programs were more likely to have PD-interested faculty than Psy. D. programs, and, within clinical Ph. D. programs, PCSAS-accredited programs were more likely to have PD-interested faculty than programs without PCSAS accreditation. Similarly, only 15% of programs (all clinical psychology programs) offer practicum opportunities in psychotherapy for personality disorders. Our findings indicate that doctoral level psychology programs are not sufficiently preparing their students with personality disorder training, which serves as a substantial disservice to both trainees and the public.

  • Amanda N Moeller, Benjamin N Johnson, Kenneth N Levy, James M LeBreton (1/1/2021) Conceptualizing and measuring the implicit personality: The state of the science

    Source: Measuring and Modeling Persons and Situations 

    In this chapter, we discuss the state of the science regarding the measurement of implicit personality (i.e., the elements of personality that are not accessible via conscious introspection). Optimal measurement of implicit personality necessitates a strong underlying psychological theory combined with indirect measurement that is resilient to dishonest responding; with such a foundation, researchers may evaluate the psychometric properties of their measures, including the independent predictive validity that indirect measures of implicit personality have over above direct measures of explicit personality. We review three prototypic classes of indirect measurement that lend themselves to assessing aspects of implicit personality: projective measures, response latency measures, and conditional reasoning measures. We discuss the history and theory behind each of these classes of measurement systems and introduce …

  • Marc J Diener, William H Gottdiener, John R Keefe, Kenneth N Levy, Nick Midgley (2/1/2021) Treatment of depression in children and adolescents

    Journal: The Lancet Psychiatry 

    conclude that “fluoxetine (alone or in combination with CBT [cognitive behavioural therapy]) seems to be the best choice for the acute treatment of moderate-to-severe depressive disorder in children and adolescents.” However, the meta-analysis has several statistical and methodological flaws that belie this and other conclusions. First, the authors’ own data indicate that the conclusions about the superiority of fluoxetine are unjustifiable. Almost none of the comparisons between fluoxetine or fluoxetine plus CBT and other treatments are significant. Furthermore, the confidence intervals of most interventions versus pill placebo overlap with that of fluoxetine and fluoxetine plus CBT, indicating that none should be considered superior to any other.

  • Frank Yeomans, John Clarkin, KN Levy (3/31/2021) Psychodynamic Psychotherapies

    The American Psychiatric Association Publishing Textbook of Personality Disorders

    Psychodynamic means “the mind in motion.” Psychodynamic psychotherapy refers to psychotherapies that stem from the psychoanalytic tradition and focus on the role of conflicting forces within the mind—competing desires, impulses, emotions, fears, and prohibitions—and their interface with external reality as sources of suffering and symptoms. The psychoanalytic tradition centers on the understanding of the mind elaborated initially by Freud (1923/1961) that emphasizes the role of unconscious aspects of mental functioning and the interaction of constitutional biological predispositions and environmental influences in psychological development. While psychodynamic therapies are primarily psychological treatments, in the course of the therapy, the therapist must continue to assess the impact of biological factors that affect the patient’s condition. As psychoanalysis evolved, its focus shifted from symptoms to character pathology (Gabbard 2005). More recently, with the emphasis on evidence-based treatments, models of psychodynamic therapy to treat specific types of personality disorder (PD) have been developed and researched (Bateman and Fonagy 2012; Clarkin et al. 2006; Yeomans et al. 2015). As the field continues to evolve, the dialogue between evidence-based models and clinical analytic practice is enriching both. As part of our discussion of the psychotherapy of personality disorders, we will also review the evolving conceptualization of those disorders.

  • Troy G Steiner, Kenneth N Levy, Joseph C Brandenburg, Reginald B Adams Jr (4/1/2021) In the mind of the beholder: Narcissism relates to a distorted and enhanced self-image

    Journal: Personality and Individual Differences

    To date, prominent theories still disagree on whether the pathological grandiosity that underlies narcissism stems from a defensive, compensatory process in response to insecurity or from years of unjustified overvaluation during formative stages of development. Across two studies, we introduce a novel method to test these theories by examining visual representations of self. In Study 1, we measured Self-Concept Clarity and the distortion of (n = 96) participants' self-images (generated using the reverse correlation technique) relative to their actual appearances. In Study 2, we then compared attractiveness ratings of the actual photographs of participants with their self-images generated in Study 1, through judgments made by independent raters (n = 45). Our work revealed that a) lower Self-Concept Clarity predicts self-image distortion, b) the narcissistic desire to conceal flaws mediates this association, and c) self …

  • Personality disorders (PDs) are relatively common, especially in clinical settings. A number of evidence-based treatments are now available, especially for borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, little is known about the relevant training available to doctoral students in clinical and counseling psychology. In the current study, data were extracted from 336 clinical and counseling PhD and PsyD programs from the Insider’s Guide to Graduate Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology (Sayette & Norcross, 2020), including the number of programs with faculty with specific interests in personality disorders and the number of programs with clinical opportunities related to personality disorders. We found that formal training in personality disorders is not widely available to most trainees in American Psychological Association (APA)-accredited doctoral training programs. Only 16% of programs have faculty …

  • Thomas M Crow, Kenneth N Levy, Bekh Bradley, Negar Fani, Abigail Powers (8/1/2021) The roles of attachment and emotion dysregulation in the association between childhood maltreatment and PTSD in an inner-city sample

    Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect 

    Most people will experience a traumatic event in their lifetime, but only a subset (<10%) will develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective To facilitate prevention and intervention of PTSD, it is important to understand how risk and resilience factors interact with one another to explain individual differences in risk for PTSD, especially in underprivileged groups, who often experience greater burden of trauma and PTSD. Method The current study utilized multiple and moderated regression to examine the relation between childhood maltreatment and adulthood PTSD risk in the context of various attachment patterns and emotion dysregulation in a sample (n = 856) of mostly low-income, African American participants. Results Moderation analysis indicated that the strongest association between self-reported childhood maltreatment and PTSD symptoms was manifest in participants reporting the highest …